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A convert from Anglicanism, Manning was enthroned as the second Archbishop of Westminster in , fifteen years after the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy in England. In he was made a cardinal of the Holy Roman Church.

But another life-long interest of his was the relation of Church and state. He often discussed this question with the politician William Ewart Gladstone As young men Manning and Gladstone had been friends, and they continued corresponding for most of their lives—their correspondence fills four volumes. In the second chapter of his pamphlet Manning lays out the Catholic position on the relation of the spiritual and temporal powers. The whole of the chapter is reproduced below. The relations of the Catholic Church to the Civil Powers have been fixed immutably from the beginning, because they arise out of the Divine constitution of the Church and of the Civil Society of the natural order.

The civil society of men has God for its Founder. It was created potentially in the creation of man; and from him has been unfolded into actual existence.

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The human family contains the first principles and laws of authority, obedience, and order. These three conditions of society are of Divine origin; and they are the constructive laws of all civil or political society. To the Civil Society of mankind supreme authority is given immediately by God; for a society does not signify mere number, but number organised by the laws and principles which its Divine Founder implanted in the human family. Sovereignty, therefore, is given by God immediately to human society; and mediately , or mediante societate , to the person or persons to whom society may commit its custody and its exercise.

When once the supreme power or sovereignty has been committed by any society to a king, or to consuls, or to a council, as the case may be—for God has given no special form of Civil Government—though it be not held by those who receive it by any Divine right, as against the society which gave it, nevertheless it has both a Divine sanction and a Divine authority. For instance, it has the power of life and death. God alone could give to man this power over man. God gave it to man for self-defence. It passes to society at large, which likewise has the right of self-defence.

It is committed by society to its chief executive. But, inasmuch as the supreme power is still given by God to the Civil Ruler, even though it be mediately , it has a Divine sanction; and so long as the Civil Ruler does not deviate from the end of his existence, the society has no power to revoke its act. I am not now engaged in saying when or how; but the right is undeniable. Manslaughter is not murder, if it be in self-defence; wars of defence are lawful; and just resistance to an unjust prince is not rebellion.

All this is founded upon the Divine sanctions of the civil and political society of man, even in the order of nature. The laws of such society are the laws of nature. It is bound by the natural morality written on the conscience and on the heart. The ethics which govern men become politics in the government of states.


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Politics are but the collective morals of society. The Civil Ruler or Sovereign is bound by the laws: The Civil Ruler may bind all subjects by an oath of allegiance. He may call on all to bear arms for the safety of the State. The State has for its end, not only the safety of person and property, but, in its fullest sense, the temporal happiness of man. Within the sphere of natural morality, and in order to its end, the State is supreme: This is the meaning of St.

Therefore he that resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist, purchase to themselves damnation. But if thou do that which is evil, fear, for he beareth not the sword in vain: Wherefore be subject of necessity, not only for wrath but also for conscience sake. The State, then, is a perfect society, supreme within its own sphere, and in order to its own end: I have drawn this out in greater fulness to show that the Church is in the highest degree conservative of all the natural authority of rulers, and of the natural allegiance of subjects.

It is mere shallowness to say that between the Civil authority, as Divinely founded in nature, and the spiritual authority of the Church there can be opposition. Now, as to the Divine institution of the Civil Society of the world and of its independence in all things of the natural order, what I have already said is enough. The laws of the order of nature are from God. So long as a father exercises his domestic authority according to the law of God, no other authority can intervene to control or to hinder his government.

So likewise of the Prince or Sovereign power, be it lodged in one or in many. There is no authority upon earth which can depose a just sovereign or release such subjects from their obedience. There is, however, another society, the end of which is the eternal happiness of mankind. This also has God for its Founder, and that immediately; and it has received from God its form and constitution, and its rulers receive their authority immediately, [3] with a special Divine sanction and authority, from God.

The natural society of man aims directly at the temporal happiness of its subjects, but indirectly it aims also at their eternal happiness: To put this briefly. The State has for its end the temporal happiness of its subjects; the Church has for its end their eternal happiness. In aiming directly at temporal happiness, the State aims also indirectly at the eternal; for these things are promoted by the same laws.

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In aiming at eternal happiness, the Church also indirectly aims at the temporal happiness of men. The Divine Founder of the Christian Church said: And whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound also in heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed also in heaven.

If these two commissions do not confer upon the Christian Church a supreme doctrinal authority, and a supreme judicial office, in respect to the moral law, over all nations, and over all persons, both governors and governed, I know not what words could suffice to do so.

That authority and that office are directive and preceptive, so long as Princes and their laws are in conformity with the Christian law; and judicial, ratione peccati , by reason of sin, whensoever they deviate from it. If any man deny this, he would thereby affirm that Princes have no superior upon earth: But no man will say that Princes have no superior. It is unmeaning to say that they have no superior but the law of God: A law is no superior without an authority to judge and to apply it.

To say that God is the sole Lawgiver of Princes is a doctrine unknown, not only to the Catholic Church, but to the Constitution of England. When we say, as our old Jurists do, Non Rex facit legem , but Lex facit Regem , we mean that there is a will above the King; and that will is the Civil Society, which judges if and when the King deviates from the law.

But this doctrine, unless it be tempered by vigorous restraint, is chronic revolution.

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What adequate restraint is there but in a Divine authority higher than the natural society of man? The Supreme Judicial Power of the Church has no jurisdiction over those that are not Christian; and the entire weight of its authority, if it were applied at all to such a state, would be applied to confirm the natural rights of sovereignty and to enforce the natural duty of allegiance: But the Divine right, which comes by grace, does not destroy the human right, which is in the order of nature.

Let us suppose that the Sovereign Power of a heathen people were to make laws contrary to the law of God, would the Church intervene to depose such a sovereign? Such a people is both individually and socially outside the Divine jurisdiction of the Church. The Church has therefore, in this respect, no commission to discharge towards it except to convert it to Christianity. But if it be the office of the Church to teach subjects to obey even Heathen Rulers, as the Apostle did, how much more, in the case of Christian Princes and their laws, is it the office of the Church to confirm, consecrate, and enforce by the sanctions of religion and of conscience, of doctrine and of discipline, the whole code of natural and political morality, and all laws that are made in conformity with the same.

If Christian Princes and their laws deviate from the law of God, the Church has authority from God to judge of that deviation, and by all its powers to enforce the correction of that departure from justice. I do not see how any man who believes in the Revelation of Christianity can dispute this assertion: But the Church of Jesus Christ, within the sphere of revelation—of faith and morals—is all this, or is nothing or worse than nothing, an imposture and an usurpation; that is, it is Christ or Antichrist.

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It is hardly loyal to take the conclusion of a syllogism without the premises. In the very page before this quotation I had said: But who can define what is or is not within the jurisdiction of the Church in faith and morals, except a judge who knows what the sphere of faith and morals contains, and how far it extends? And surely it is not enough that such a judge should guess or opine, or pronounce upon doubtful evidence, or with an uncertain knowledge. Such a sentence would be, not an end of contention, but a beginning and a renewal of strife.

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If it could, it would be invested with one of the supernatural endowments of the Church. To do this it must know the whole deposit of explicit and implicit faith; or, in other words, it must be the guardian of the Christian revelation.

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Now, no Christian, nor any man of sound mind, claims this for the Civil Power. If, then, the Civil Power be not competent to decide the limits of the Spiritual Power, and if the Spiritual Power can define with a Divine certainty its own limits, it is evidently supreme. Or, in other words, the Spiritual Power knows with Divine certainty the limits of its own jurisdiction; and it knows therefore the limits and the competence of the Civil Power.

It is thereby in matters of religion and conscience supreme.

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If the Church cannot fix the limits of its jurisdiction, then either nobody can or the State must. But the State cannot unless it claim to be the depository and expositor of the Christian Revelation. Therefore it is the Church or nobody. This last supposition leads to chaos. Now if this be rejected, the Church alone can: But this was my conclusion; and though I have seen it held up to odium, I have not yet seen it answered. But the Church being the highest society, and independent of all others, is supreme over them, in so far as the eternal happiness of men is involved.

Such propositions are no sooner enunciated than we are met by a tumult of voices, such as those of Janus , Quirinus —and I lament to detect the tones of a voice, hitherto heard in behalf of the authority of Christianity and of the Christian Church,—affirming that the Church of Rome and its Pontiffs claim supreme temporal [10] power, and that direct, over all Temporal Princes and things; to be used at their discretion even to the deposing of Kings, to the absolution of subjects from allegiance, to the employment of force, imprisonment, torture, and death.

If such be the state of our highest minds, we cannot regret that this discussion has been forced upon us. It has come not by our act.

It has arisen in its time appointed. It will for awhile raise alarm and suspicion; it will kindle animosity and encourage bigotry: I will therefore freely and frankly enter upon this debate; and, in order to be clear, I will treat the subject under the following propositions: I have affirmed that the relations of the Catholic Church to the Civil Powers are fixed primarily by the Divine constitution of the Church and of the Civil Society of men.

But it is also true that these relations have been declared by the Church in acts and decrees which are of infallible authority. As this has become the text and centre of the whole controversy at this moment, we will fully treat of it. This Bull, then, was beyond all doubt an act ex cathedra. It was also confirmed by Leo X.